Mycotoxins, bacteria, heavy metals and other toxic contaminants in feed have adverse effects on the health of animal. The decontamination of feed to reduce the content of harmful substances before feeding is inevitably needed. Clay minerals are a promising effective feed additive due to their cost-effectiveness and nearly without side effects. Montmorillonite (Mt) has high adsorption for mycotoxins, bacteria, heavy metals in animal feed and body. This review made a comprehensive and critical review of how Mt as an ingredient in animal feed functions. It covers the recent understanding of removing mycotoxins, bacteria and heavy metals onto Mt and the relevant influences of Mt on animal intestinal health, growth performance and product quality. Mt as feed additive can remove mycotoxins and bacteria in feed and gastrointestinal tract of the animal by surface adsorption, electrostatic adsorption and intermolecular force. In addition, Mt can adsorb heavy metals effectively in feed by the exchangeability of interlayer cations and by the swellability due to cation hydration. Modification of Mt by metal ions, metal oxides, and organic cations can improve the adsorption efficiency of mycotoxins, bacteria, heavy metals in vitro and in vivo. Mt and its modified products as feed additive can remarkably enhance the intestinal health and growth performance of livestock, aquatic and poultry. Utilization of Mt as feed additive can effectively improve the quality of milk, egg and meat.
Montmorillonite for removing mycotoxins, bacteria and heavy metals from animal feed.
Insights into mechanisms of removing mycotoxins, bacteria and heavy metals.
Effect of montmorillonite in vivo on intestinal health and growth performance.
Montmorillonite-added feed improves the quality of milk, egg and meat.
Existing problems and future work on montmorillonite as feed additive.
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Research Group for Advanced Materials & Sustainable Catalysis (AMSC), State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China
Qing Yang Institute for Industrial Minerals, You Hua, Qing Yang, Chi Zhou 242804, China
Zhijiang College, Zhejiang University of Technology, Shaoxing 312030, China