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Nanoclay-based drug delivery systems and their therapeutic potentials

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Nanoclay-based drug delivery systems and their therapeutic potentials 
 
Nafeesa Khatoon,   Maoquan Chu  and  Chunhui Zhou  
 
 
Abstract
 
Safe, therapeutically effective and patient-compliant drug delivery systems are needed to combat the vulnarebility of drug carrier among deadliest disaeases such as cancer, SARS, H7N9 avian influenza and dengue infection. The major challenges in drug delivery are cytotoxicity, biodistribution, fuctionality, drug incorporation and drug release. Clay minerals a class of nanolayered silicates with good bocompatibility, high specific surface area, adsorption capacity, swelling property, ion exchange capacity, chemical inertness, colloid and thixotropy and are attractive practical and potential nanomaterials used as either excipients or active drug agents. such nanoclays have been recently investigated as drug carriers for the delivery of antibiotics, antihypertensive drugs, anti-psychotic and anticancer drugs. The review examines latest advances in nanoclay-based drug delivery systems and related applications in gene therapy and tissue engineering. Clay minerals in particular montmorillonite, kaolinite and halloysite are used to delay and/or target drug release or even improve drug dissolution. Chemical modification such as intercalation of ions or surface modification is a strategy to tune the properties of nanoclays for the loading of drug. The modified nanoclays can easily assimilate drugs by encapsulation, immobilization, ion exchange mechanism or by electrostatic interactions. The drug release from the drug-clay nanocomposites are originated from molecular level incorporation, and strong interaction between drug and inorganic layers including electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Montmorillonite has proven to be nontoxic by hematological, biochemical and histopathological analysis in rat models. Montmorillonite can also act as potent detoxifier. Halloysite nanotubes can bind to synthetic and biological components such as chitosan, gelatin, alginate innate nanocarriers for loading and controlled release of drugs, proteins and DNA. The peculiar properties of these clay nanomaterials lead to applications in drug delivery, gene delivery, tissue engineering, cancer and stem cells isolation, and bioimaging. Drug delivery, tissue engineering and gene therapy are an important and delicate field of research in biomedicine; therefore, the use of naturally occurring clay nanomaterials with its myriad of properties can be seen as an essential breakthrough, although further explorations in biomedical is still needed.
 
 
It can be cited as:

Journal of Materials Chemistry B
, 2020, DOI: 10.1039/D0TB01031F

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