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读研究生之初就应该知道的20件事

读研究生之初就应该知道的20件事
Twenty things I wish I’d known when I started my PhD

 
硕士、博士学位是一段美好的经历,让你有机会从事令自己着迷的事情 
 


 
走上攻读硕、博士学位的道路可能很难。回想起来,我希望在一开始就了解关于读研究生的很多事情。在本文中,我列出了我所就读的英国牛津大学动物学系攻读、博士学位和从事博士后研究的建议清单,希望能对准备读、博士学位或刚刚开始进入研究生阶段的新生有所帮助。
 
1.找到适合自己的
计划和节奏,在工作与生活之间保持健康的平衡。最好是在整个计划中保持良好的平衡,稳定工作。学会照顾自己是成功的关键。
 
2.与你的上级主管
讨论期望结果。每个人的工作方式都可能不同,要确定充分了解自己的需求,并尽早将这些信息传达给你的上级主管,这有助于高效率地共同协作。
 
3.
重视文献综述,投入大量时间和精力做好文献综述。在数据收集之前和之后的这些评论可以帮助你确定研究目标和结论。
 
4.尽早确定研究目标。查看你所在院系部门的研究指南,然后根据论文要求建立明确的研究目标或问题。目标可以在以后更改,但
制定明确的计划有助于你保持专注。
 
5.“我不用写下来,我能记住。”这是最大的谎言!应该
写下你所做的一切,即使是失败的记录,包括会议记录、关于研究方法详细信息、代码注释等内容。
 
6.保持研究和工作区
井井有条。特别是请务必使用有意义的标签,以便了解事物的内容和位置。尽早这样做可以节约更多的时间。
 
7.
开始动笔写论文永远不嫌早。将你的研究记录下来,并向你的上级主管呈现,即使你最终没有使用你的早期研究成果,这种做法也是很可取的,也有助于理清研究思路,让想法井然有序。
 
8.将论文分解为SMART(即具体、可衡量、可实现、相关性和及时)的目标。如果你的待办事项列表上写的是“写出结果部分的第一段草稿”,而不是“写出第一章”,那么你的工作效率会更高。
一篇完整的论文是由许多小想法、小部分组成的
 
9.最好的论文是“已经完成的论文”。无论你花多少时间完善论文初稿,
在修改过程中付出的努力都会得到回报,并体现在研究成果中。在提交最终论文定稿之前,你会经历更多的修改,产生更多版本的论文草稿。尽快将草稿发送给上级主管,宜早不宜迟
 
10.对你的上级主管
说实话。如果你对某些事情不理解,如果你搞砸了实验,或者他们忘记给你反馈信息,请一定告诉他们。你越诚实,你和上级主管的关系就会越好。关键是要促使他们来帮助你。
 
11.
一定记得备份工作内容!至少每周备份一次,可以避免很多令人心碎的意外。
 
12.
与实验室团队和其他学生积极交流。这是讨论
、博士学位就读体验、获得建议和帮助、改善研究和结交朋友的好方法。
 
13.经常
参加部门研讨会和实验室小组会议,甚至(或特别)当会议主题不是你的专业领域时也要积极参加。你学到的东西可以改变你的研究和职业方向。定期出席这些会议也会被上级注意到。
 
14.
积极展示研究成果。展示场景可以是实验室小组会议,或大会议等。开始时可能感到害怕,但熟能生巧,以后变得越来越容易,这可以很好和他人建立联系,获得有价值的反馈。
 
15.争取
把研究成果发表出来。可能实际上没能成功发表,但起草论文并将其提交给期刊,是学习新技能和升级简历的好方法。
 
16.保持在工作之外的
充实生活。虽然实验室团队就像一个大家庭一样,但是偶尔能从工作中脱身,对你的心理健康是有好处的。比如运动、参加俱乐部、培养业余爱好、度假或与朋友一起共度开心时光
 
17.不要将自己与别人比。攻读博士学位是进行
原创研究、揭示新信息的机会。因此,所有博士课程都彼此不同。你只需要做对你和你的项目有用的事情。
 
18.
既然是研究,其实就意味着,事情并不总是能够按计划进行。这并不能说明你的研究有问题。这种时候应该保持冷静,休息一下,然后继续。失败的实验仍然可以作为攻读
、博士学位过程的一部分。
 
19.永远不要只靠自己。多跟与其他学生交谈,并与你的上级主管进行坦诚的讨论
。向他人寻求帮助并不可耻。永远记得,你不是一个人在战斗。
 
20.
快乐读
、博士学位要做到这点可能很困难,有时你会希望自己能从事一份“正常”点的工作,但是、博士学位是一段美好的经历,让你有机会从事令自己着迷的事情。尽情庆祝成功,享受生活吧。
 


 *
读硕士、博士学位为译文加。此载该文仅作公益学习和交流之用,无商业目的。 

 

原文链接:https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-07332-x
 

Twenty things I wish I’d known when I started my PhD

Recent PhD graduate Lucy A. Taylor shares the advice she and her colleagues wish they had received.
 
 
Starting a PhD can be tough. Looking back, there are many things I wish I’d known at the beginning. Here, I have curated a list of advice from current PhD students and postdoctoral researchers from the Department of Zoology at my institution, the University of Oxford, UK, to aid new graduate students.

1. Maintain a healthy work–life balance by finding a routine that works for you. It’s better to develop a good balance and work steadily throughout your programme than to work intensively and burn out. Looking after yourself is key to success.
2. Discuss expectations with your supervisor. Everyone works differently. Make sure you know your needs and communicate them to your supervisor early on, so you can work productively together.
3. Invest time in literature reviews. These reviews, both before and after data collection, help you to develop your research aims and conclusions.
4. Decide on your goals early. Look at your departmental guidelines and then establish clear PhD aims or questions on the basis of your thesis requirements. Goals can change later, but a clear plan will help you to maintain focus.
5. “I don’t need to write that down, I’ll remember it” is the biggest lie you can tell yourself! Write down everything you do — even if it doesn’t work. This includes meeting notes, method details, code annotations, among other things.
6. Organize your work and workspace. In particular, make sure to use meaningful labels, so you know what and where things are. Organizing early will save you time later on.
7. It’s never too early to start writing your thesis. Write and show your work to your supervisor as you go — even if you don’t end up using your early work, it’s good practice and a way to get ideas organized in your head.
8. Break your thesis down into SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and timely) goals. You will be more productive if your to-do list reads “draft first paragraph of the results” rather than “write chapter 1”. Many small actions lead to one complete thesis.
9. The best thesis is a finished thesis. No matter how much time you spend perfecting your first draft, your work will come back covered in corrections, and you will go through more drafts before you submit your final version. Send your drafts to your supervisor 
sooner rather than later.
10. Be honest with your supervisor. Let them know if you don’t understand something, if you’ve messed up an experiment or if they forgot to give you feedback. The more honest you are, the better your relationship will be. Helping your supervisor to help you is key.
11. Back up your work! You can avoid many tears by doing this at least weekly.
12. Socialize with your lab group and other students. It’s a great way to discuss PhD experiences, get advice and help, improve your research and make friends.
13. Attend departmental seminars and lab-group meetings, even (or especially) when the topic is not your area of expertise. What you learn could change the direction of your research and career. Regular attendance will also be noticed.
14. Present your research. This can be at lab-group meetings, conferences and so on. Presenting can be scary, but it gets easier as you practise, and it’s a fantastic way to network and get feedback at the same time.
15. Aim to publish your research. It might not work out, but drafting articles and submitting them to journals is a great way to learn new skills and enhance your CV.
16. Have a life outside work. Although your lab group is like your work family, it’s great for your mental health to be able to escape work. This could be through sport, clubs, hobbies, holidays or spending time with friends.
17. Don’t compare yourself with others. Your PhD is an opportunity to conduct original research that reveals new information. As such, all PhD programmes are different. You just need to do what works for you and your project.
18. The nature of research means that things will not always go according to plan. This does not mean you are a bad student. Keep calm, take a break and then carry on. Experiments that fail can still be written up as part of a successful PhD.
19. Never struggle on your own. Talk to other students and have frank discussions with your supervisor. There’s no shame in asking for help. You are not alone.
20. Enjoy your PhD! It can be tough, and there will be days when you wish you had a ‘normal’ job, but PhDs are full of wonderful experiences and give you the opportunity to work on something that fascinates you. Celebrate your successes and enjoy yourself.
 
 
 
 
doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-07332-x
 
This is an article from the Nature Careers Community, a place for Nature readers to share their professional experiences and advice. Guest posts are encouraged. You can get in touch with the editor at naturecareerseditor@nature.com.
 
 
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